Policy analysis within these contexts is normally directed at coming out with the alternatives for managing the financial complexities of the private sector as well as how the two; public and private finance; can be harmonized within an efficient and effective public private partnership to support development (NAO 2001). Within public finance, the policy analysis issues have been how government can raise enough tax revenues and other internal revenues to support development by playing an important role in building effective and inclusive financial systems and policy framework to make finance work for development (Demirgüç-Kunt, 2008). In addition, the policy analyst is therefore expected to suggest "how to recreate national and global financial systems in such a way that more and cheaper finance can be channeled into productive investment in developing countries, rather than relying on excessive expenditure and speculation on developed country financial markets" (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD] 2008). The UNCTAD (2006) also argue that "finance from external sources may also be necessary at a significant scale for many developing countries, but the appropriate management is also a matter of domestic policies" This thus becomes the responsibility of the policy analyst.
"mission lies in servicing the investment shortfalls of developing countries and bridging the gap between commercial investment and state development aid". Development finance institutions provide a broad range of financial services in developing countries, such as loans or guarantees to investors and entrepreneurs, equity participation in firms or investment funds and financing for public infrastructure projects."
- National Governments: E.g. Australian Agency for International Development, Austrian Development Agency, Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), Department for International Cooperation, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and German Development Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Department for International Development (DFID), United States Agency for International Development(USAID) and Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC).
- These organizations ensure foreign and economic relationships with other countries through global cooperation, export and investment promotion, trade and development policy as well as funding of poverty reduction efforts.
- In terms of finance, these international organizations are interested in the financial markets, monetary and financial issues, insurance, private pensions, economic policy and public debt management (macroeconomic management and growth, fiscal policy and debt issues), financial education and aid effectiveness.
- These organization are interested in raising funds to support community based projects and programs in poverty endemic rural and urban areas. They may coordinate with governments mostly at the local government level but often deal directly in the design and implementation of their projects and programs in beneficiary communities and with community based organizations. Research and advocacy, relief and provision of social and economic services and opportunities for the poor are their interests.
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I would like to extend my sincerest appreciation to Prof. Beth Honadle who was the instructor for the "Policy Analysis for Planners" course for allowing me to post this paper as part of my blog articles .