Tuesday, June 14, 2011


1.1 Introduction
The role of education in transforming the socio-economic well-being of individuals, societies and nations has increasingly gained prominence in development action both in the past and currently. Sequel to this awareness is the increase advocacy and investments as well as prioritization in the efforts aimed at enhancing educational achievement in both developing and developed countries. However, most discussions have focused on developing countries where educational investments are low and adoption of education as a means of poverty reduction is constraint most especially in the rural areas.

Competition between household resources for promoting education and economic activity has favored the latter in most rural areas. For these reasons, educational attainments are low in rural areas in addition to such manifestations as low enrollments levels, high incidence of school drop-outs, high illiteracy and inadequate access to new opportunities that education brings.

Currently, there is now robust evidence that human capital is a key determinant of economic growth, social development and sustainable development. The correlation of education is progressively being associated with a wide range of non-economic benefits such as better health and well-being. Education has thus moved to the centre stage of strategies to promote economic prosperity, fuller employment and social cohesion in many countries (OECD/UNESCO 2002).

So with this understanding, what is the state of rural education in the world? Has the attention to which research have advocated for manifested in improved rural education? What are the urban and rural dichotomies for education in the world especially developing countries? And what are the causes of the state of rural education?

These are the underlining issues for this review and the paper attempts to present evidences from literature to substantiate the current situation and adopt pragmatism to enhancing rural education from a world view in subsequent papers.