Monday, October 24, 2011


What most people do not understand about the output of a literature review leads them to the presentation of non-concurrent and poor articulation of facts, concepts and perspectives from what pertains to their research area. Literature review is supposed to reveal the cogent issues of theory and practice to the subject matter of ones research.Thus discussions must be founded on issues that are connected coherently to the research topic, problem statement and research questions or objectives.
In most cases, if one picks a discussion (write-up) on the issues presented as part of the literature review for a thesis, I should be able to appreciate the issues of on the subject matter from a theoretical, conceptual and practical perspective and from an international to a local perspective? This paper provides a resource base as to the whats and hows of a literature review.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011


1.1 Introduction
The role of education in transforming the socio-economic well-being of individuals, societies and nations has increasingly gained prominence in development action both in the past and currently. Sequel to this awareness is the increase advocacy and investments as well as prioritization in the efforts aimed at enhancing educational achievement in both developing and developed countries. However, most discussions have focused on developing countries where educational investments are low and adoption of education as a means of poverty reduction is constraint most especially in the rural areas.

Competition between household resources for promoting education and economic activity has favored the latter in most rural areas. For these reasons, educational attainments are low in rural areas in addition to such manifestations as low enrollments levels, high incidence of school drop-outs, high illiteracy and inadequate access to new opportunities that education brings.

Currently, there is now robust evidence that human capital is a key determinant of economic growth, social development and sustainable development. The correlation of education is progressively being associated with a wide range of non-economic benefits such as better health and well-being. Education has thus moved to the centre stage of strategies to promote economic prosperity, fuller employment and social cohesion in many countries (OECD/UNESCO 2002).

So with this understanding, what is the state of rural education in the world? Has the attention to which research have advocated for manifested in improved rural education? What are the urban and rural dichotomies for education in the world especially developing countries? And what are the causes of the state of rural education?

These are the underlining issues for this review and the paper attempts to present evidences from literature to substantiate the current situation and adopt pragmatism to enhancing rural education from a world view in subsequent papers.

Sunday, April 10, 2011


NB: This is a digression from the series of articles on Rural Education in Ghana. This is aimed at helping friends and colleagues who are currently writing their research proposal.

1.0 Introduction
Normally, at the ending of the year before students enter their final year at the university whether reading a postgraduate programme or undergraduate programme their concern are narrowed down to not only their examinations but the thesis/research they would undertake in their final year. Most often, students become aggrieved and confused as to the research topic to choose and how to go about it. Although most students are taught research methods, the applications of the principles at this stage elude a lot of them and therefore efforts at helping them appreciate the situation and overcome this challenge is always welcomed. This write-up presents the issues of writing a research proposal and the approach students can adopt. Although these vary across several schools, the outline below applies to a majority of them. For the purposes of this paper, emphasis has been placed on writing a research proposal on development issues.

Friday, April 1, 2011


The rural poor are part of an ancient and well-established social structure, and efforts to improve their productivity without regard to this structure are likely to be frustrated.
World Bank (1978)

The rural development situation as is being propagated by scholars in the last decade is no different from past trends. Impoverishment and deprivation are manifest of the lag in development of rural areas of the world especially in developing countries with the urban areas experiencing the chunk of economic development and growth. The 1978 World Development report asserts that:

“Historical experience suggests that the poorer members of the population are unlikely to share equitably in economic growth, mainly because they have less access to the productive assets needed to generate incomes, land, credit, education, and jobs in the modern sector. In the poorest countries, with their slow average rate of growth, the incomes and consumption levels of the poorer half of the population have stagnated. Worse, in countries where agriculture has expanded more slowly than population (parts of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa), the incomes of some of the rural population has declined” (World Bank, 1978).

The above paragraph provides glimpses of the past which are semblance of current trends of the state of rural areas around the world. The proportions of the population living in absolute poverty are still high and are found in rural areas. About 40 percent of the population of developing countries, nearly 800 million people, were living in absolute poverty by 1978 and in 2009 the proportion has increased to 70 percent; an increase of 30 percent; demonstrating worsening trends in terms of the welfare of the rural folk despite advancement and innovation in interventions, technology and investments (World Bank, 1978; Cleveringa et. al 2009). This presupposes that interventions to enhancing livelihoods in rural areas have not been generally effective from an international perspective and even though significant improvements may have been achieved on country by country basis, international efforts must start reflecting on a paradigm shift and a self assessment of international agents’ roles in promoting rural development. This paper attempts to present a discussion of the characteristics of rural areas and the trends in their populations, their development and what has been the international response to the past and emerging challenges.

Thursday, March 10, 2011


Over the years in development constellation and taxonomy, development interventions have been concentrated and directed at improving human welfare but priority have mostly been focused on rural areas mainly because the population in the rural areas were greater the urban population, rural areas were deprived and experienced severer forms of impoverishment and deprivation than their urban counter parts and lastly that rural areas are a depository of natural resources that provides livelihood support for both rural and urban dwellers but the exploitation of these resources for human enhancement have been inadequate as a result of inadequate and sometimes lack of local capacities for planning and programming. These have been the argument for rural development.